Informations about Santorini


The island of Santorini, or Thira, or Strogyli (older name) is located in the southern Aegean Sea, in the Cyclades island group, south west of Ios and Anafi. Distance from Piraeus is 128 nautical miles and 63 nautical miles from Crete. The Athinios, the biggest port, has created the homonymous cove. The area is 76.19 square kilometers. Today Santorini is one of the most famous tourist centers of the world. It is also known for its volcano. The last volcanic activity was the year 1950 and future eruptions are certain. Parts of the volcano are: Nea Kameni (1707-1711 AD), Palea Kameni (46-47 AD), the undersea volcano Columbo (active) (1650 AD), Christian islands.

Santorini belongs to the Aegean volcanic arc and is characterized active volcano with Methana, Milos and Nisyros. The island and the islands Thirassia and Aspronisi are remnants of the volcanic island rounded. The round was a volcanic cone. The central part of being blown up along with the crater of the volcano from the Minoan eruption in 1613 BC and resulted in the creation of what we now call the caldera of Santorini and the destruction of the prehistoric culture of the island. In the marine gap formed between Thira and Thirassia, which has a depth of 1,500 meters, occasionally surfaced volcanic cones formed following islands: the Old, Little and Nea Kameni, Kameni to George I, the Burned Foucault , the Afrossa and Daphne.

All these islands grew slowly and joined, except Palea Kameni. Recently there has been a change in the status of the volcano. After many years the seismic energy increased in the resulting magma volcano "inflated" the Paleo Kameni order and volcanologists to liken jokingly, as if inflated keik. Fortunately the volcano remains inactive.


Name of Santorini

The name of the island "Thira" comes from the ancient Spartan Thira from Sparta coming first colonized the island. The name "Santorini" comes passing by Frankish Crusaders who, on their passage to refuel stood near the church of Agia Irini located in the modern area of the circumstances behind the church of the Holy Cross (Santa Irina called it) which existed in nisi. At first, was thought that the church was the chapel of Agia Irini was Thirassia, today considered more likely to be the magnificent early Christian basilica of Agia Irini in Santorini, the ruins of which were discovered in 1992. Before the great volcanic destruction of prehistoric times the island was round and had the name Round and later acquired the names Kallisti or Callisto (Ancient Greek Kallisti: "the most beautiful") Filiteri or Filotera, Kalavria, Karisti, planting, Theramenis as and Renia. At the Ottoman Turks called "Dermetzik" or "Dimertzik" (= small mill), probably from the many small windmills visible from afar. After the liberation of Greece, the name "Thira", but foreigners continued to maps are named "Santa-Pacific," from which it remained with little alteration by the Greeks as "Santorini" (instead of sounder Santorini).


Historical data for Santorini

In 726 AD blew the northeastern side of Palea Kameni and appeared new island, which quickly joined her. The explosion was seen as a sign of divine wrath against the Byzantine Emperor Leo III the Isaurian, who was iconoclast. Opponents of the emperor used the event to incite rebellion, which eventually broke the 727, both in the Cyclades and the rest of Greece. Leader of the revolution was cavarly comander of Greece, Agallianos and Stefanos. The rebels appoint another emperor, a Cretan named Cosmas and sail to Constantinople. The fleet was destroyed by the liquid fire on 18 April 727, while the leaders of the revolution, the true Agallianos thrown into the sea, and the Stephen and Cosmas delivered and beheaded.

After the capture of Constantinople by the Crusaders in 1204, Marco Sanudo founded the Duchy of the Aegean, based in Naxos (1207). The other islands that included the Duchy of the Aegean or the Duchy of Naxos were Syros, Kimolos, Milos, Ios, Santorini and Anafi. Thera and Therasia granted to James Barrotsi and remained in this family, with small breaks, as in 1480. Then Thera was given as dowry by the Duke of Naxos James C Crispi Fiorentsa his daughter and her husband Dominic Pisani, son of the Duke of Crete.


The island, shortly after the death of James Crispi was occupied by his brother John and appended to Naxos. During the years of the conquest of Constantinople by the Ottomans, many countries remained under Greek Latin rule. In 1537, Thira, following the fate and other Aegean islands, was the raids of Hayreddin Barbarossa. Barbarossa won Kea, Mykonos and Santorini from the Latin domination and forced the rulers of the islands to recognize the suzerainty of the Sultan. Thera came finally to the Turks in 1566, with the exception of the castle of Akrotiri, which passed into the hands of the Turks in 1617.

When in 1579 died Ispanoevraios Joseph Nashi, which had granted the Cyclades from the Sublime Porte of the Ottoman Empire, the Islanders sent emissaries to the sultan Murad III (1574-1595) to seek grant privileges. Envoys to the islands belonged representatives of Santorini. By definition, adopted in 1580, the islands of the Cyclades granted important privileges, which were updated in 1628 to 1629 and later. The status of privileges helped organize government system and the development of commercial activity in them. Despite the barren ground and the devastating earthquakes that afflicted the islands of Santorini - as it is commonly called in the Venetian - presented performance in agriculture and shipping. In 1770 the island's population reached 9,000 and as shown by the amount of tax paid by the island must have been wealthier than the other islands.

In the early 19th century, the economic prosperity of the island continued, as well as the service in the Navy. In 1807, during the impress made by the Portal to meet the needs during the Russo-Turkish War, Thera had to send the Turkish naval base 50 sailors, those words and Mykonos, which shows the great development of the navy on the island. Growth was also observed during the last years of Ottoman occupation and education, and the monastery of Prophet Elias on the island was one of the most important monastic centers of the Cyclades. On May 5, 1821 Captain Evangelos Matzarakis raised the flag of revolution in Santorini.


After the liberation of the island and joining the fledgling Greek state in 1830, the main source of income was trade and shipping. In 1852, Santorini, with 7,222 inhabitants is the second largest shopping center after of Syros in the Cyclades with transactions primarily with Russia, which is the main importing country of Santorini wine. Another important source of income was the production of agricultural products and in particular the manufacture of wine. The volcano began ekrygneitai on January 26, 1866. Before the explosion, an increase in water temperature near Nea Kameni. The eruption consisted of pouring lava and structures. An earthquake of 6.1 on the Richter scale took place on 30 January and caused damage to 50 houses and two churches. According to the literature the eruption ended 15 October 1870. The explosion took place in the crater of St. George and Afroessa created islets of May today have sunk, and tripled the size of Palea Kameni.

On 28 July 1925 observed earthquakes, warning residents that an eruption is imminent. Around the Red Water, between the islands of Nea Kameni and Small, the sea temperature rose and the sea changed color. The eruption began on August 25 with ground water explosions, later seen explosive volcanic ash columns that reached a height of 3.5 km. The activity focused on volcanic dome Daphne, they poured lava and led to the union of New and Small Kameni. The first phase of the eruption ended in 1926. A second, smaller dome of formed a new eruption in 1928 was named Nautilus. The volcano erupted again in 1939 and created the blocks Triton Ktena Ms. Fouquet and lava flows Smith, Reck and Nike. Eruption ended in July 1941. The most recent eruption took place from January 10, 1950 until February 2 of that year and created the dome of sundried. These volcanic rocks are the most recently created in Greece.

During the Second World War, Santorini was occupied first by Italian (1941) and then in 1943 by German occupation forces. On 9 July 1956 occurred near Amorgos earthquake measuring 7.8 on the Richter scale, which was the strongest that took place in Europe during the 20th century. The main earthquake, with a Richter 6.9 aftershock followed 12 minutes, spanned caused disasters in Santorini, Astypalea, Anafi, Kalymnos, Leros, Patmos, Amorgos, 53 deaths, and one of the largest tsunamis in the Aegean, with height up to 25 meters. After this fact much of the population left the island. The 1960s began to develop tourism in Santorini, reaching its peak in the mid-1980s.


Since then tourism on the island knows continued growth, having now made Santorini one of the most popular tourist destinations worldwide. The cruises start at the island from March and continues until late November, having extended periods of very high season. During the summer months more than 30 to 40 charter from every corner of the world land at the airport.

It is characteristic that even the winter months the visits of tourists to the island do not stop, especially from Asian countries. The huge tourist development of the island's natural to have altered the character of the island. Hundreds of new buildings have made their appearance everywhere and the famous rural agriculture flourished and vineyards have been reduced greatly in size, giving the place a luxurious hotel units, bars, restaurants etc.